The role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and therapy has recently attracted more attention in research and drug development. The ability of the microenvironment to trigger tumor maintenance, progression, and resistance is the main cause for treatment failure and tumor relapse. Accumulated evidence indicates that the maintenance and progression of tumor cells is determined by components of the microenvironment, which include stromal cells (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and immune cells), extracellular matrix (ECM), and soluble molecules (chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles). As a solid tumor, melanoma is not only a tumor mass of monolithic tumor cells, but it also contains supporting stroma, ECM, and soluble molecules. Melanoma cells are continuously in interaction with the components of the microenvironment. In the present review, we focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment components in the modulation of tumor progression and treatment resistance as well as the impact of the tumor microenvironment as a therapeutic target in melanoma.
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Kharouf, Naji; Flanagan, Thomas W.; Hassan, Sofie Yasmin; Shalaby, Hosam; Khabaz, Marla; Hassan, Sarah Lilly; Megahed, Mosaad; Haikel, Youssef; Santourlidis, Simeon; and Hassan, Mohamed, "Tumor Microenvironment as a Therapeutic Target in Melanoma Treatment" (2023). School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications. 123.