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International Journal of Molecular Sciences


Through a process termed clot retraction, platelets cause thrombi to shrink and become more stable. After platelets are activated via inside-out signaling, glycoprotein αIIbβIII binds to fibrinogen and initiates a cascade of intracellular signaling that ends in actin remodeling, which causes the platelet to change its shape. Clot retraction is also important for wound healing. Although the detailed molecular biology of clot retraction is only partially understood, various substances and physiological conditions modulate clot retraction. In this review, we describe some of the current literature pertaining to clot retraction modulators. In addition, we discuss compounds from Cudrania trucuspidata, Arctium lappa, and Panax ginseng that diminish clot retraction and have numerous other health benefits. Caffeic acid and diindolylmethane, both common in plants and vegetables, likewise reduce clot retraction, as do all-trans retinoic acid (a vitamin A derivative), two MAP4K inhibitors, and the chemotherapeutic drug Dasatinib. Conversely, the endogenous anticoagulant Protein S (PS) and the matricellular protein secreted modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC1) both enhance clot retraction. Most studies aiming to identify mechanisms of clot retraction modulators have focused on the increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor I and the decreased phosphorylation of various phospholipases (e.g., phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and (PI3Ks). One study focused on the decreased phosphorylation of Sarcoma Family Kinases (SFK), and others have focused on increased cAMP levels and the downregulation of inflammatory markers such as thromboxanes, including thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2); prostaglandin A2 (PGE2); reactive oxygen species (ROS); and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme activity. Additionally, pregnancy, fibrinolysis, and the autoimmune condition systemic lupus erythematosus all seem to affect, or at least have some relation with, clot retraction. All the clot retraction modulators need in-depth study to explain these effects.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.