Maxillary Full Arch Restorations – Biological Complications: A Narrative Review Outlining Criteria for Long Term Success

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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery


Purpose: Patients receiving full arch implant borne maxillary prostheses require functional, esthetic, and long term success. The importance of this review is to document the difficulty with implant maintenance, the prevalence of peri-implant disease, and the improvement in biologic health when using a prosthesis that can be maintained to minimize plaque. The objective is to provide surgeons with a reference to optimize surgical procedures that can result in improved hygiene and long term maintenance, as well as acceptable functional and esthetic goals. Methods: was the information source. Years reviewed included 1990-2022. Inclusion criteria included only articles in journals referenced in The reports excluded were case reports, reports that only included implant survival, and articles without a statistical analysis to generate meaningful conclusions. Biological complications included bone loss, hygiene difficulty, mucositis and recession, the incidence of peri-implantitis, and how complications related to patient co-morbidities. Data collected included outcomes of the study including statistical significance. Results: The search identified articles for review using terms which included full arch maxillary restorations (n = 736), long term success with full arch maxillary prostheses (n = 22), ceramic full arch restorations (n = 102), and complications with full arch restorations (n = 231). From this search, 53 articles were collated that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Factors found to be significant contributors to biological complications included bone loss and peri-implant disease, difficulty with daily hygiene access, plaque and biofilm coverage, and the need for continued maintenance for long term implant health. Conclusion: The surgeon needs to place implants to allow a full arch maxillary prosthesis to be fabricated with full access to the implants for maintenance, which should decrease the incidence of biological complications. With excellent maintenance full arch implant restorations can have limited peri-implant disease.

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