Hygiene Recall in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients: A Periodic Prognostic Factor in the Protection Against Peri-Implantitis?

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Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery


Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of poor outcomes with dental implant placement. This study aims to identify if frequency of hygiene visits is a protective factor for the development of peri-implantitis in diabetic patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort design was conducted on patients presenting for dental implant placement at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center from 2006 to 2012. The primary predictor variable was hygiene frequency, recorded as either infrequent, annual (7-12 month recall), or biannual (≤6-month recall). The number of months between implant placement and the presence of peri-implantitis was the primary outcome (time-to-peri-implantitis) variable, which was assessed on a subject level and adjusted for clustered, correlated multiple implants on the same subject. Additional variables were greater than or equal to 60 years of age, male gender, smokers, short implant length, diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes, and removable prostheses. Descriptive, univariate, and Cox proportional hazards regression statistics were computed to measure associations with peri-implantitis with P ≤ .05 used to define statistical significance. Results: The study sample was composed of 286 patients. In total, 748 implants were placed. Subjects greater than or equal to 60 years of age were 2 times more likely to develop peri-implantitis (hazards ratio (HR) = 2.015, 95% Cl (0.985-4.119), P = .0549). Subjects receiving implant-supported removable prostheses were 2.3 times more likely to develop peri-implantitis (HR = 2.315, 95% CI (1.006-5.327), P = .0485). With each hygiene visit, patients' risk of developing peri-implantitis decreased 20% (HR = 0.805, 95% Cl (0.394-1.647), P = .5528). In addition, diabetic patients were 49% more likely to develop peri-implantitis (HR = 1.491, 95% CI (0.758-2.936), P = .2475) than nondiabetic patients. Conclusions: Diabetic patients may be at increased risk for the development of peri-implantitis and an increased frequency of hygiene visits may reduce peri-implant diseases.

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