Risk Factors for Postoperative Inflammatory Complications After Maxillofacial Reconstruction Using Polyether-Ether-Ketone Implants

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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery


Purpose: Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) implants are increasingly used for the reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial deformities, but limited data exist on their limitations or risk factors for complications associated with their use. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for postoperative inflammatory complications (POICs) after the use of PEEK implants in craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, incorporating all patients treated with patient-specific PEEK implants at the authors' institution from August 1, 2012 to June 30, 2019. The outcome variable was the presence of POICs. The potential predictor variables were demographic, medical, anatomic, and treatment related. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests, t tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis where appropriate. Results: The 32 patients included in the study were composed of 68.8% men; mean age was 40.6 years. The PEEK implant was placed adjacent to the paranasal sinuses in 56.3% of patients. The indication for use was malar depression in 50.0%, orbital dystopia in 46.9%, forehead or skull defects in 21.9%, and mandibular contour deformities in 6.2%; 8 patients had more than 1 indication. The overall rate of POICs was 28.1%. Of the POICs, 66.7% were managed with incision and drainage, revision surgery, or removal and 33.3% were managed with outpatient wound care or antibiotics. Tobacco use, the presence of an intraoral incision, and the presence of multiple incisions were all associated with POICs. On multivariable analysis, tobacco use approached significance (odds ratio, 17.3 [95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 306.7]) and multiple incisions (odds ratio, 6.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 32.3]) had a statistically significant association with the occurrence of complications. Conclusions: The present study identified several variables potentially associated with complications after the use of PEEK implants in maxillofacial reconstruction. Consideration should be given in the preoperative evaluation when a smoker is identified and when multiple incisions are planned.

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