Association of adipokine levels with obesity in periodontal health and disease: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression

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Journal of Periodontal Research


This study aimed to investigate the levels of serum, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and salivary adipokines and their possible relationship with periodontitis and obesity. An electronic search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed/ Medline, Scopus, and EBSCOhost through February 2023. Two independent reviewers screened the titles, abstracts, and full text of all the studies. Studies comparing the levels of adipokines in GCF, serum, and/or saliva in subjects with obesity and periodontitis (group 1), subjects with normal weight and periodontitis (group 2), and subjects with obesity and gingival health (group 3) were included. Meta-analyses and meta-regression were performed on the data from included studies. Seventeen studies with study participants ranging from 30 to 120 were included with subjects in each group ranging from 10 to 40. There was a significant increase in levels of serum TNF-α, leptin, IL-6, and CRP between groups 1 and 2 (p < .05). In GCF, TNF-α and resistin levels were significantly higher (p < .05) in Group 1 vs. 2. Serum level of leptin was higher for group 1 vs. 3 (p < .05). Meta-regression analysis revealed that the obesity definition (body mass index (BMI) cut-off value > 25 or > 30) was significant for serum resistin (p < .05) and GCF resistin (p < .05) between group 1 and 2. The current analysis indicates that both periodontitis and obesity can modulate the pro-inflammatory cytokines at systemic and local levels. This bidirectional interaction of periodontitis and obesity via the inflammation pathway seems likely plausible. Further studies are required to elucidate this mechanism in more detail.

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