Preparation and optimization of an eggshell membrane-based biomaterial for GTR applications

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Dental Materials


Objectives: Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is a popular clinical procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, its key component, the barrier membrane, is largely collagen-based and is still quite expensive, posing a financial burden to the patients as well as healthcare systems and negatively impacting the patient's decision-making. Thus, our aim is to prepare a novel biomimetic GTR membrane utilizing a natural biomaterial, soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP), which is economical as it comes from an abundant industrial waste from food and poultry industries, unlike collagen. Additive polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and a bioceramic, nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp), were added to improve its mechanical and biological properties. Methods: For this barrier membrane preparation, we initially screened the significant factors affecting its mechanical properties using Taguchi orthogonal array design and further optimized the significant factors using response surface methodology. Furthermore, this membrane was characterized using SEM, EDAX, and ATR-FTIR, and tested for proliferation activity of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs). Results: Optimization using response surface methodology predicted that the maximal tensile strength of 3.1 MPa and modulus of 39.9 MPa could be obtained at membrane composition of 8.9 wt% PLGA, 7.2 wt% of SEP, and 2 wt% HAp. Optimized PLGA/SEP/HAp membrane specimens that were electrospun on a static collector showed higher proliferation activity of HPLFs compared to tissue culture polystyrene and a commercial collagen membrane. Significance: From the results observed, we can conclude that SEP-based nanofibrous GTR membrane could be a promising, environment-friendly, and cost-effective alternative for commercial collagen-based GTR membrane products.

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