How to Avoid Errors When Using Navigation to Place Implants – A Narrative Review.

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Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery


Purpose: Surgeons placing implants use navigation for implant placement accuracy. The importance of this review is to document the sources of error that are involved with navigation so surgeons can recognize factors to decrease error. The objective is to provide surgeons with a reference to optimize navigation. Methods: was the information source. Years reviewed included 2010 to 2022. The inclusion criteria included only articles in peer-reviewed journals. In vitro results were included only if they involved testing of variables microgap, cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) accuracy evaluation, or accuracy of printed models. Variables were searched and evaluated. Data collected included the objectives and outcomes of the study including statistical significance. The conclusions made by the authors were confirmed by evaluating the data analysis, and then these conclusions were listed in each error-related topic. Results: The search used terms which included guided implant surgery complications (n = 4,029), accuracy of CBCT scanners (n = 319), accuracy of implant navigation (n = 983), and the error between drills and static guides (n = 3). From this search, 70 articles were collated that satisfied the inclusion criteria. There are multiple sources of error that are less than 1 mm, including but not limited to errors associated with the scanner and method for scanning, errors associated with merging scanned files with the CBCT scan, errors using different guide stent fabrication methods, errors associated with intraoperative techniques, the learning curve, and planning error. If small errors are not taken into consideration, implant placement errors can exceed 1-2 mm of platform location and angulation errors in excess of 8°. Conclusion: The surgeon needs to take into consideration controllable factors that will result in the avoidance of implant malposition and thus be able to effectively utilize navigation for accurate implant placement.

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W B Saunders