Gender-based Differences in Career Plans, Salary Expectations, and Business Preparedness Among Urology Residents

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



OBJECTIVE: To characterize gender-related differences between the values and salary expectations of US urology residents. METHODS: We analyzed 2016-2018 American Urological Association Census data regarding residents' demographics, motivations, and concerns. To explore gendered differences, we queried Census items related to demographics, values, and preparedness for the business of practice. Descriptive statistics and test of hypotheses were used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 705 residents responded of whom 196 (28%) were female. More than half of residents (54%) reported educational debt >$150,000. Factors influencing choice of practice setting included lifestyle (87%), compensation (82%), and location (78%) and was not significantly different between males and females. There were also no differences regarding planned practice setting. However, women had significantly lower first year salary expectations; 53% expected to make <$300,000, compared with only 32% of men (P <.001). Finally, significantly more women reported feeling unprepared to handle the business of urology practice, including salary negotiation, (74% vs 53%, P <.001). CONCLUSION: Among a nationally representative sample of urology residents, women had significantly lower salary expectations and expressed significantly more discomfort with the business aspects of medicine, including contract negotiation, than their male counterparts. These observational findings may contribute to and potentially perpetuate the urology wage gap.

First Page


Last Page




This document is currently not available here.