Contemporary Rates of Gynecologic Organ Involvement in Females with Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Retrospective Review of Women Undergoing Radical Cystectomy following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

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The Journal of urology


PURPOSE: According to the American Urological Association/American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Society for Radiation Oncology/Society of Urologic Oncology Guideline on treatment of nonmetastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), females requiring radical cystectomy (RC) should undergo concomitant anterior pelvic exenteration despite low rates of malignant involvement of gynecologic organs. We present the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with MIBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and evaluate the impact of NAC on gynecologic organ involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional review board approved review of patients with cT2-T3 MIBC treated with RC at our institution between 2005 and 2018 was performed. Patients were stratified by receipt of NAC. RESULTS: A total of 186 females with cT2-T3 MIBC underwent RC during the study period, of whom 67.7% received NAC prior to RC. Patients who received NAC were more likely to have cT3 disease, preoperative hydronephrosis, and variant histology on transurethral resection (p <0.001, p=0.004, p=0.029, respectively). Rates of recurrence or metastasis were similar between groups (27.0% vs 26.7%, p=0.964). No patients had isolated genitourinary organ recurrence (median followup 32.1 months). Nine patients (5.7%) had gynecologic organ involvement (6 NAC vs 3 no NAC, p=0.978). Among those who underwent hysterectomy, 2 patients (3.1%) who received NAC had uterine involvement compared to none in the no NAC cohort (p=0.551). Rates of vaginal involvement were similar between the groups (4 NAC vs 3 no NAC, p=0.402). Additionally, 1 patient who received NAC had incidentally diagnosed localized endometrial cancer. No women had fallopian tube or ovarian involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Even among high risk patients with MIBC, gynecologic organ involvement of MIBC is rare, and organ preservation, especially of the ovaries, is likely safe.

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